Cryogenic systems are used in the field of low-temperature technology, cryogenics (Greek “cold”). Cryogenics is the generation of low temperatures <123 Kelvin. These temperatures affect the thermodynamic properties of elementary particles. Cold surfaces are able to condense gases on the correspondingly cooled surfaces and bind them in the process (surface binding). Non-condensable gases are adsorbed at low temperatures using activated carbon. Thus, a wide range of gases can be pumped. Cryogenic systems usually consist of a refrigeration unit (refrigerator), cryopump and cryotherapy compressor. The low temperatures are generated by expanding high gas pressures, which are achieved by using special compressors that can compress helium. With particularly pure helium, temperatures down to about 1K can be achieved. These systems are free of hydrocarbons and are therefore preferably used in semiconductor, coating and similar processes within the industry. Cryogenic systems are also required in basic research and applications with superconducting materials. Examples of cryogenic applications:
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